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Biology Blood Sample

1

 

Reasons for Elevated Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

 

BUN is an important evidence of how the kidneys are functioning. Elevated levels of the blood urea nitrogen show the inability of the kidney to eliminate the nitrogenous wastes from the body (Macintyre, 2006). High levels of BUN normally occur in individuals with acute, chronic kidney failure and urine flow obstruction. Besides, increased levels of BUN can be present in the kidney damage of major kidney diseases. BUN can also indicate of cardiac conditions. This commonly surfaces in the event of a shock, congestive heart failure, severe burns, and heart attack (Jacobsen, 2007). However, grounding on the information taken from Glorious Essays high BUN does not indicate the presence of a disease all the time. BUN can be increased in cases where there is increased protein catabolism as it occurs in fasting (Weatherby & Ferguson, 2004). Other instances like high protein diet and another normal process can lead to elevated BUN.

 

Reasons for Lower Blood PH

 

On its own, blood acidity can be associated with several factors. However, the main reasons are those related to kidney and lung problems. Kidneys and lungs are known to cause metabolic and respiratory acidosis respectively (Habte, 2011). The respiratory acidosis is associated with airway diseases such as asthma,pneumonia and chest injury. Metabolic acidosis can occur due to the ability of the kidneys to eliminate excess carbonates from blood (Jacobsen, 2007). However, acidosis can also be caused by other conditions like extreme exercise, diabetes and aspirin methanol poisoning (Habte, 2011).

 

Reasons for Increased CO2 in the Body

 

High levels of CO2 in the body indicated extreme exercise or failure of the lungs to excrete it. This usually occurs in the lung conditions like COPD and other conditions that impair gaseous exchange (Habte, 2011).

 

Reasons for Elevated Blood Glucose Levels

 

Glucose is mainly elevated in the body after a meal. However, the levels of glucose can be high when there is the defective conversion of glucose to its storage form (Jacobsen, 2007). Common in cases of insufficient insulin or the state of insulin resistance.

 

Reason for High Potassium and Chloride Ions

 

High levels of the potassium and chloride ions mainly occur in the cases of kidney failure. In this case increased potassium and chloride ions implies serious kidney damage (DeHaan, 2003). However, in isolation they would mean a decreased levels of insulin in the body and high levels of glucose in the body (Habte, 2011).

 

Suggestion of All These Conditions

 

All these conditions indicate that the kidneys have failed to eliminate the extra electrolyte thus leading to metabolic acidosis. As a result, the compensatory mechanism has been established by the body to eliminate extra stress causing elevated glucose levels.

 

Part 2

 

In the normal body conditioning, carbonates are removed together with potassium ions; this reduces the concentration of carbon dioxide and potassium in the boy. As a result, the levels of Chlorides and glucose remain low. Similarly, the working kidneys eliminate the blood urea nitrogen thus causing the body level to stabilize (Weatherby & Ferguson, 2004). Consequently, the level of PH in the body will return to normal resuming the normal body functionality.

 

Part 3

 

Dialysis is the treatment of choice. The hemodialysis replaces the function of the kidney. In the end, it eliminates the high levels of Potassium, Chloride and carbonates thus leading to the level of normal (Macintyre, 2006). This can be achieved either by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.